During WW1 the most valuable specimens of cultural heritage disappeared from museum collections, libraries and archives.
There are numerous documents, reports and witness testimonies which are kept in the archives of the National Museum in Belgrade and other museums, in the National Library of Serbia, the Archive of Serbia, the Archive of Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, that serve as proof of the mentioned.
Numerous artifacts from the missing collections appear in the museum collections, libraries, archives, private legacy and collections all over Europe and the world.
The National Museum in Belgrade (archeological artifacts, pictures, collections of weapons, national costumes etc.) was exposed to the biggest destruction of museum collections. According to the estimates at the time, what was left in the National Museum after the WW1 was just 10% of the former value and scope of museum collections which had been collected for more than 100 years. There are a large number of missing museum artifacts of the Ethnographic Museum, Military Museum, Belgrade City Museum, the National Library, the University Library and archive.
The changes that have occured in the last few decades in the international law and ethical legislation offer more positive possibilities when it comes to bringing back artifacts to the country from which they were taken during war and vandal actions. The aim of the project is to reclaim valuable archeological, historical, artistic, ethnographic artifacts which belong to the most valuable and the most significant specimens of national culture collected in the 19th and the first half of the twentieth century.
The project involves multidisciplinary research of Zica Monastery and its environment: research in the field of humanities in order to valorize all the heritage values of this monastery complex (in architecture, interior, painting, sculpture, environment, intangible amenities, anthropology of religion) in the unique way; research in the field of natural, as well as technical and technological sciences, in order to determine the methods of preventive conservation, curative conservation, restoration, documentation, promotion and presentation, as well as the modern concepts of using the heritage of Zica Monastery .
The special contribution of this project is related to the plan of realization of modern principles of heritage protection (conservation, documentation, presentation), as well as setting up the monastery in accordance with modern life and framework of sustainable development. In that way, Zica would be treated as a protected heritage sector, which equally treats all heritage contents of monastery, including its natural environment, by implementing integrative system approach for heritage protection.
The project’s primary activities are the restoration and revitalization of old traditional crafts and trades. The project develops educational activities aimed at training students in secondary schools and capacitating them to practice old construction trades and the skills related to the preparation of the construction material. These activities are designed as instruments for the preservation of intangible heritage with a view to conserving and revitalizing urban as well as rural architectural heritage. The project envisages the restoration of other traditional crafts such as spinning and weaving, embroidery, knitting, pottery, carving, metalworking, woodworking, making traditional furniture, to mention some. Also, the project includes the revitalization of gastronomic heritage, with a focus on the heritage related to the cultivation of healthy foods: fruits, vegetables, grains, animals, fish, herbs, honey and honey products, the preparation and preservation of food, traditional beverages, and customs related to food, etc. The aim of the project is to ensure the recognition of the above intangible heritage and its incorporation into the modern life of the Ivanjica region and Golija, which is recognized by UNESCO as a biosphere reserve named Gilija-Studenica. The project’s target, in addition to the revitalization of traditional crafts, is to promote eco-tourism and conservation of biodiversity in the regions of Golija and Ivanjica.
The project will explore and develop the principles of the preservation of traditional cuisine, preservation of natural food resources, manners of cultivation of raw materials, manners of preparing food and equipping the kitchen (kitchen furniture, utensils). It also includes the heritage of preparing food connected to secular and religious customs, holidays, etc. The aim of the project is the study of all the contents of traditional gastronomic heritage as important elements of the preservation of local, national and regional identities, exploring ways and instruments for their preservation and passing on to future generations, as well as for their adjustment to modern life.
Protection of cultural and natural heritage is a strategic field of social development. Accordingly, ALFA BK University is developing a heritage protection study programme which will fully implement the contemporary concept of complex, integrative care for heritage. This project includes three phases of the development of the proposed educational programme, and therefore includes:
a) Development of a Heritage Protection programme of academic education, based on a 3+2+3 principle:
· Heritage Protection Undergraduate Studies
· Heritage Protection and Conservation Master’s Programme
· Heritage Protection PhD Studies
b) Development of Conservation Studios and Workshops (equipment, instruments, tools, working materials and the similar) for architectural conservation, archeological conservation, conservation of paintings on canvas, wood, wall and paper; conservation of wood, textile, leather; conservation of sculptures in stone, wood, metal, plastics, composite materials; conservation of stone and mosaics; conservation of ceramics and maiolica, porcelain and glass; conservation of metal; conservation of old books and archival materials; conservation of old negatives, photographs and other audio-visual materials.
c) Development of a Research Laboratory, which could quickly bring about the establishment of a Centre for Research and Development by the Ministry of Science, Education and Technological Development (equipment and instruments for scientific research and analysis, working material etc.). The research laboratory should consist of laboratories for physics, chemistry, and physical chemistry, as well as technology and biology.
d) Development of a Research Centre for Maritime Archaeology Since the maritime cultural heritage has become endangered, there is urgent need to determine measures necessary for the proper application of surveillance and protection. By establishing and developing a Research Centre for Maritime Archaeology within the Heritage Protection and Conservation Master’s programme, we will be able, by means of theoretical and practical teaching, to put special emphasis on the application of modern technology in protecting this type of heritage. By applying the information communication technology system of surveillance our students will be trained to recognize and document maritime archaeological heritage, present it in a simpler way, valorize it and consequently protect. Since there is no consistency in the application of the existing prescribed measures in protecting the maritime heritage, developing such a centre is regarded as a key component in the future development of the methodology of integrative approach to heritage protection.
The Project as a whole employs a multidisciplinary approach to the research of the villages Zlakusa and Potpeće with their surroundings, including ethnological /anthropological research, ethnoarchaeological and archaeological research, historical research, geo- and biodiversity research, as well as research in the field of the integrative protection of cultural and natural heritage and its inclusion into cultural tourism in the region of Užice. The Project specifically focuses on developing the ways of integrating cultural heritage into contemporary life, as well as programmes for presenting and using heritage with a view to providing the preservation of heritage authenticity and integrity, without disturbing the natural course of life or hindering the development of the local community. Special emphasis is laid upon the preservation and continuation of traditional crafts (such as pottery, wickerwork, weaving, building craft, cuisine, etc.); the methods of incorporating heritage into contemporary life; the development of rural, cultural, and culinary tourism; the inclusion of the local population and community in the processes of preserving and using heritage with the aim to improve the quality of life; and finally, the revival and cultivation of traditional values.
The area of Kosovo and Metohija was the ethnic and cultural cornerstone of the Medieval Serbian State.
Owing to numerous medieval sources, such as, for example, Dečani charters from 1330, there still remain to this day detailed lists of Serbian households that providea compelling evidence of the presence of Serbian population as absolute majority in Kosovo and Metohija.
Unfortunately, the events after the arrival of the Turks, as well as those dating from the more recent history, have caused the changes in many place names with Serbian origin which were being used for centuries. This process of obliteration of Serbian toponyms, as well as other tangible and intangible evidence of cultural heritage, is still present. It is, therefore, necessary to take into account the factthat the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (UNESCO – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), treats manipulation of historical place names and their renaming as unacceptable.
In order to preserve the historical memory and identity of the Serbian people and the state in the territory of Kosovo and Metohija, it is necessary to create a glossary of authentic toponyms of the indigenous Serbian population of Kosovo and Metohija, which is seen as a historical, cultural and religious center of the Serbian State. Furthermore, it is essential to create a topographic map with authentic toponyms, which, by definition, refer to the geographical names of the localities, towns, villages, certain territories, rivers, lakes, mountains and other terms for geographical spaces.
The conference will be held from 8-11 December 2016, at ALFA BK University in Belgrade.
The basic strategic content of the Conference is the regional project “Revitalization of cultural and natural heritage in Southeast Europe”, which has been systematically developed from 2006 to 2016. The conference participants should show their concrete results over the past 10 years within the given topic “Results of the Revitalization of Cultural and Natural Heritage in Southeast Europe in the period from 2006 to 2016”.
After the Conference, a book of conference proceedings will be published as a scientific publication.
The concept of sustainable development of local communities defines and ensures the proper inclusion of all contents of heritage in contemporary life, material, intangible and natural heritage. Sustainable development provides adequate revitalization of heritage values; continuity in the preservation of the local community identity; creating financial resources for improving the quality of life of local residents,as well as for the regular investment in maintaining and professional protection of the heritage; managing cultural heritage and organizing systematic and regular care at the local community level.
By applying sustainable development on a certain region,we are able to assisstthe local community to preserve their own heritage in cooperation with other professionals; elaborating marketing plan aimed at better promoting of the values and the importance of heritage, afterwards creating a cultural environment favorable to the development of all types of cultural and geo tourism.
Examples of mountain villages that have not changed in the last few centuries in the region between and above Prijepolje and Priboj, such as Ožalj, Kamena Gora, Ticijepolje, are good examplesof how theabovementioned principles of sustainability heritage arefeasible.It involves the revitalization and protection of complex contents belonging to the local heritage, as well as its valid involvement in contemporary life, adapting it, thereby, to its own cultural identity.